the ethereum foundation eth1 eth2blog

Ethereum is a peer-to-peer network, which means that small changes may have a ripple effect on the health of the network . In addition, storing and changing state is one of the things that makes the client developer team more headache. Writing and maintaining clients is hard enough, and state growth adds to the burden. As the state grows, the diversity and performance of customers will decline, which is bad for everyone.

What are the potential solutions?

Starting from the launch conference in Devcon4 Prague and continuing until 2019, many core developers, contributors and magicians gathered to discuss how to extend the life of the Eth1.0 chain. Here are the most important proposals and related content discussed:

01. Moderate optimization and mitigation

  • More radical cuts .

At first this approach was considered too complicated, but recently, as Trinity’s bean sync approach demonstrated the feasibility of semi-statelessness for light clients, the concept of stateless clients has gained a lot of support.

It’s important that moving to a stateless or semi-stateless paradigm does less damage to existing Eth1.0 networks than methods such as state rent, because this approach does not cause major changes to existing clients . Stateful nodes and stateless light clients can coexist at the same time, and semi-stateless (semi-stateless) Ethereum will provide more opportunities for experimenting with different client implementations.

Help build the future!

Phase 1.5

Over the holidays, Vitalik posted a new proposal on how we might expedite the eth1+eth2 merger and begin reaping the benefits of the new eth2 infrastructure much sooner. This proposal suggests migrating eth1 into a shard of eth2 after the Phase 1 infrastruture (shard data chains) is added but before a full Phase 2 (featuring extensible EEs and all the cross-shard bells and whistles) – thus Phase 1.5!

A phase 1.5 has many potential benefits to the ethereum protocol and to its developers and users.

  1. Eth1 living inside of eth2 allows for native access to the scalable sharded data layer. Some of the most exciting constructions being built on ethereum today are layer 2 protocols that scale with the amount of data available to layer 1.
    These will pair beautifully with eth2 even with just a single chain with native computation (i.e.

This net will start entirely controlled by the constituent client teams (planned Lighthouse, Nimbus, Prysm, and Teku), Afri, and some EF team members. After initial launch, the deposit contract address will be released to allow for open, public participation.

Like the previous multi-client testnets to date, Altona is more of a devnet than an end-user focused testnet. That is, Altona is first and foremost for client teams to sanity check v0.12 software in a production setting and for eth2 engineers as a whole to work through any bugs that might only arise in a multi-client setting.
That said, we welcome you to join and grow Altona over time.

Or that Eth1 ceases to exist once Eth2 exists.” the blog stated

Foundation further added that by removing the ETH2 terminology, we will save future Ethereum users by stopping them to getting into any type of misleading or confusing thinking.

“Neither of these is true. By removing Eth2 terminology, we save all future users from navigating this confusing mental model.”

Now foundation will use a small different terminology, that is execution layer (Eth1) and the consensus layer (Eth2) and the combination will make Ethereum complete. And the merge of these two layers will be called an upgrade.

Besides these things, the foundation also claimed that under such changes they will be able to eliminate those possible scams, which may come into action by bad actors to swap Ethereum into Ethereum2.

Одна из самых громких историй в криптопространстве прямо сейчас — это предстоящий запуск Ethereum 2.0 — долгожданного обновления блокчейна, которое полностью изменит его механизм консенсуса и то, как он проверяет транзакции.

Были некоторые опасения, что запуск не состоится из-за отсутствия депозитов в контракте ETH2.

Для контекста Ethereum необходимо перенести из исходной цепочки в цепочку ETH2, чтобы валидаторы или операторы полного узла могли участвовать в проверке блока. В коде указано, что должно быть не менее 16 384 валидаторов, каждый из которых ставит 32 ETH, прежде чем обновление сможет правильно запуститься.

At the same time, the shards in Eth2.0 will almost certainly be stateless, so when the time is ripe, this will open a new path for Eth1.0’s final transition to Serenity.

We will explore stateless clients in more depth in another article.If you have read here, you are now up to date with the current state of Eth1.x research and can follow and join in related new developments!Join us at, or stay tuned for updates from the foundation on Eth1.x.

[The copyright of the article belongs to the original author, and its content and opinions do not represent the position of Unitimes, nor does it constitute any investment opinions or suggestions.Posting articles is only for disseminating more valuable information.

Ether (ETH) will automatically switch to Eth2 following the merge — into swapping Ether (ETH) for fake ETH2 tokens.

“Unfortunately, malicious actors have attempted to use the Eth2 misnomer to scam users by telling them to swap their ETH for ‘ETH2’ tokens or that they must somehow migrate their ETH before the Eth2 upgrade,” the post read.

The news saw a relatively apathetic response in the r/Ethereum subreddit, with most users joking about the change, or complaining about the length of time the merge was taking.

“Don’t care what you call it, just fucking ship it soon plsss” said Redditor ghfsgiwaa.

User Kristkind stated that the attempted rebrand has come “too late”, noting that the term Eth2 has already been widely adopted by the media and users:

“Everybody in the media, even the crypto-related one, runs with the term 2.0 or simply Eth2.

Eth (1.0)”-emerged with the goal of extending the life of the current Ethereum chain by at least 3 -5 years until the arrival of a more significant Serenity (Eth2.0) upgrade.

What’s wrong with the current Ethereum blockchain?

The problem is complicated. It does not look like a security hole or a major design flaw, because Eth1.0 does not have a problem that needs to be solved urgently, which allows us to invest special resources to solve it. Similarly, if no changes are made to the current chain at all, it is unlikely that major events will cause the Ethereum network to stop functioning or “fire”.

However, what may bring catastrophic conditions to the current Ethereum network is that with the natural growth of the chain state, the result is a slight decline in network performance and damage to network health .

Storage requirements of the chain

“If anyone mentions the” blockchain storage cost “”, just talk to them about Amazon Black Friday’s web page: 8TB of storage costs $ 125.Blockchain faces some real problems, but the cost of storage is not one of them.”——Emin Gün Sirer ( @ el33th4xor )

Before a full node becomes a “first class citizen” of Ethereum, it must synchronize the entire history of the Ethereum blockchain. The longer the history is, the more data is stored. Currently, for a “standard” Parity or Geth full node, its storage requirement is about 219GB, and it grows by 10-15GB per month.

From an absolute storage cost perspective, this is not too bad . Running completely on consumer hardware has always been Ethereum’s vision (except for archive nodes, because archive nodes require approximately 3.5TB of storage).

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